Arduino

Arduino Base LEGO Robotics.

Arduino is a computer hardware and software company, project, and user community that designs and manufactures Microcontroller kits for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control objects in the physical world. The project’s products are distributed as open-source hardware and software, which are licensed under the General Public License (LGPL) or the GNU General Public License (GPL).

An Arduino board consists of an Atmel 8-, 16- or 32-bit AVR microcontroller (although since 2015 other makers’ microcontrollers have been used) with complementary components that facilitate programming and incorporation into other circuits. An important aspect of the Arduino is its standard connectors, which let users connect the CPU board to a variety of interchangeable add-on modules termed shields. Some shields communicate with the Arduino board directly over various pins, but many shields are individually addressable via an I²C serial bus—so many shields can be stacked and used in parallel. Before 2015, Official Arduinos had used the Atmel megaAVR series of chips, specifically the ATmega8, ATmega168, ATmega328, ATmega1280, and ATmega2560. In 2015, units by other producers were added. A handful of other processors have also been used by Arduino compatible devices. Most boards include a 5 V linear regulator and a 16 MHz crystal oscillator (or ceramic resonator in some variants), although some designs such as the LilyPad run at 8 MHz and dispense with the onboard voltage regulator due to specific form-factor restrictions. An Arduino’s microcontroller is also pre-programmed with a boot loader that simplifies uploading of programs to the on-chip flash memory, compared with other devices that typically need an external chip programmer. This makes using an Arduino more straightforward by allowing the use of an ordinary computer as the programmer. Currently, optiboot bootloader is the default bootloader installed on Arduino UNO.

At a conceptual level, when using the Arduino integrated development environment, all boards are programmed over a serial connection. Its implementation varies with the hardware version. Some serial Arduino boards contain a level shifter circuit to convert between RS-232 logic levels and transistor–transistor logic (TTL) level signals. Current Arduino boards are programmed via Universal Serial Bus (USB), implemented using USB-to-serial adapter chips such as the FTDI FT232. Some boards, such as later-model Uno boards, substitute the FTDI chip with a separate AVR chip containing USB-to-serial firmware, which is reprogrammable via its own ICSP header. Other variants, such as the Arduino Mini and the unofficial Boarduino, use a detachable USB-to-serial adapter board or cable, Bluetooth or other methods, when used with traditional microcontroller tools instead of the Arduino IDE, standard AVR in-system programming (ISP) programming is used.

Official Boards:

The original Arduino hardware was produced by the Italian company Smart Projects. Some Arduino-branded boards have been designed by the American companies SparkFun Electronics and Adafruit Industries. As of 2016, 17 versions of the Arduino hardware have been commercially produced.

Arduino Shields:

Arduino and Arduino-compatible boards use printed circuit expansion boards called shields, which plug into the normally supplied Arduino pin headers. Shields can provide motor controls for 3D printing and other applications, Global Positioning System (GPS), Ethernet, liquid crystal display (LCD), or breadboarding (prototyping). Several shields can also be made via do it yourself (DIY).

LEGO Compatible Shields:

  • EVShield for Arduino Duemilanove or Uno
  • NXShield for Arduino Duemilanove or Uno
  • NXShield for Arduino Mega256

Software development:

Arduino programs may be written in any programming language with a compiler that produces binary machine code. Atmel provides a development environment for their microcontrollers, AVR Studio and the newer Atmel Studio, which can be used for programming Arduino.

The Arduino project provides the Arduino integrated development environment (IDE), which is a cross-platform application written in the programming language Java. It originated from the IDE for the languages Processing and Wiring. It was created for people with no profound knowledge of electronics. It includes a code editor with features such as syntax highlighting, brace matching, cutting-pasting and searching-replacing text, and automatic indenting, and provides simple one-click mechanism to compile and upload programs to an Arduino board. It also contains a message area, a text console, a toolbar with buttons for common functions and a series of menus.

A program written with the IDE for Arduino is called a “sketch”. Sketches are saved on the development computer as files with the file extension .ino. Arduino Software (IDE) pre-1.0 saved sketches with the extension .pde.

The Arduino IDE supports the languages C and C++ using special rules to organize code. The Arduino IDE supplies a software library from the Wiring project, which provides many common input and output procedures. User-written code only requires two functions, for starting the sketch and the main programs loop, that are compiled and linked with a program stub main() into an executable cyclic executive program with the GNU toolchain, also included with the IDE distribution. The Arduino IDE employs the program avrdude to convert the executable code into a text file in hexadecimal coding that is loaded into the Arduino board by a loader program in the board’s firmware